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Alpha cells

Cells found in the pancreas that secrete glucagon. In patients with type 2 diabetes, alpha cells often hypersecrete glucagon.
The following content matched the glossary term: Alpha cells

American Diabetes Association 72nd Scientific Sessions Daily Coverage June 9, 2012

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Daily coverage of American Diabetes Association 72nd Scientific Sessions  June 9, 2012

Results from the EASIE, EUREXA, TODAY, and Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) trials; new data on SGLT2 inhibitors for diabetes treatment, incretins for diabetes treatment, ATP-IV guideline update, and more.

 

Impact of incretin therapy on islet dysfunction: an underlying defect in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes

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McGill JB. Impact of incretin therapy on islet dysfunction: an underlying defect in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Postgrad Med. 2009;121(1):46-58. Glucose homeostasis is governed by a complex interplay of hormonal signaling and modulation. Insulin, glucagon, amylin, the incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and other hormones and enzymes interact to maintain glucose homeostasis and normal cellular metabolism. 

The incretins: From the concept to their use in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Part A: Incretins: Concept and physiologic functions

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Girard J. The incretins: From the concept to their use in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Part A: Incretins: Concept and physiologic functions. Diabetes Metab. 2008;34(6):550-559. This paper briefly reviews the concept of incretins and describes the biological effects of the two incretins identified so far: the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP); and the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). GIP is released by the Kcells of the duodenum, while GLP-1 is released by the Lcells of the distal ileum, in response to nutrient absorption.

Evidence for a potent antiinflammatory effect of rosiglitazone

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Mohanty P, Aljada A, Ghanim H, Hofmeyer D, Tripathy D, Syed T, Al-Haddad W, Dhindsa S, Dandona P. Evidence for a potent antiinflammatory effect of rosiglitazone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:2728-2735. We have recently demonstrated a potent antiinflammatory effect of troglitazone, an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma) and a partial agonist of PPAR-alpha in both the nondiabetic obese and diabetic obese subjects.

Suppression of Nuclear Factor-kappaB and Stimulation of Inhibitor kappaB by Troglitazone

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Ghanim H, Garg R, Aljada A, et al. Suppression of Nuclear Factor-B and Stimulation of Inhibitor B by Troglitazone: Evidence for an Anti-inflammatory Effect and a Potential Antiatherosclerotic Effect in the Obese. Endocrinology. 2001;86:1306-1312. To elucidate whether troglitazone exerts an antiinflammatory effect in humans, in vivo, we investigated the suppression of nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) in mononuclear cells (MNC) by this drug.



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