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Endogenous insulin

Insulin secreted by the pancreatic beta-cells. In patients with type 1 diabetes, endogenous insulin is virtually undetectable because of immune damage to the beta-cell. Patients with type 2 diabetes have detectable insulin levels, but they are insufficient to overcome the increased insulin needs caused by insulin resistance.


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American Diabetes Association 72nd Scientific Sessions Daily Coverage June 9, 2012

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Daily coverage of American Diabetes Association 72nd Scientific Sessions  June 9, 2012

Results from the EASIE, EUREXA, TODAY, and Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) trials; new data on SGLT2 inhibitors for diabetes treatment, incretins for diabetes treatment, ATP-IV guideline update, and more.

 

Clinical Insights in Diabetes Newsletter Archive

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Clinical Insights® in Diabetes Newsletter Archive

Glucagon-like peptide analogues for type 2 diabetes mellitus

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Shyangdan DS, Royle P, Clar C, Sharma P, Waugh N, Snaith A. Glucagon-like peptide analogues for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Oct 5;(10):CD006423. Glucagon-like peptide analogues are a new class of drugs used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes that mimic the endogenous hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). GLP-1 is an incretin, a gastrointestinal hormone that is released into the circulation in response to ingested nutrients.

Management of type 2 diabetes: new and future developments in treatment

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Tahrani AA, Bailey CJ, Del Prato S, Barnett AH. Management of type 2 diabetes: new and future developments in treatment. Lancet. 2011;378(9786):182-97. The increasing prevalence, variable pathogenesis, progressive natural history, and complications of type 2 diabetes emphasise the urgent need for new treatment strategies.

Pharmacokinetics & Pharmacodynamics of Therapeutic Doses of Basal Insulins NPH, Glargine, & Detemir After 1 Wk of Daily Admin at Bedtime

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Lucidi P, Porcellati F, Rossetti P, Candeloro P, Cioli P, Marzotti S, Andreoli AM, Fede R, Bolli GB, Fanelli CG. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Therapeutic Doses of Basal Insulins NPH, Glargine, and Detemir After 1 Week of Daily Administration at Bedtime in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects: A randomized cross-over study. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(6):1312-4. To compare the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of NPH, glargine, and detemir insulins in type 2 diabetic subjects.

Pleiotropic effects of rimonabant: clinical implications

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Després JP. Pleiotropic effects of rimonabant: clinical implications. Curr Pharm Des. 2009;15(5):533-570. Abdominal obesity (high waist circumference) is more strongly associated with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes than generalized adiposity (high body mass index).

The role of incretins in glucose homeostasis and diabetes treatment

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Kim W, Egan JM. The role of incretins in glucose homeostasis and diabetes treatment. Pharmacol Rev. Pharmacol Rev. 2008;60(4):470-512. Incretins are gut hormones that are secreted from enteroendocrine cells into the blood within minutes after eating. One of their many physiological roles is to regulate the amount of insulin that is secreted after eating. In this manner, as well as others to be described in this review, their final common raison d'être is to aid in disposal of the products of digestion.

Dipeptidyl-peptidase-IV inhibition augments postprandial lipid mobilization and oxidation in yype 2 diabetic patients

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Boschmann M, Engeli S, Dobberstein K, et al. Dipeptidyl-peptidase-IV inhibition augments postprandial lipid mobilization and oxidation in type 2 diabetic patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Dec 16. [Epub ahead of print]. Dipeptidyl-peptidase-IV (DPP-4) inhibition increases endogenous GLP-1 activity resulting in improved glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Emerging drug candidates of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) inhibitor class for the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

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Gupta R, Walunj SS, Tokala RK, Parsa KV, Singh SK, Pal M. Emerging drug candidates of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) inhibitor class for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Curr Drug Targets. 2009;10(1):71-87. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) is a key regulator of insulin-stimulating hormones, glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), thus it is a promising target for the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Targeting Incretins in Type 2 Diabetes: Role of GLP-1 Receptor Agonists and DPP-4 Inhibitors

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Pratley RE, Gilbert M. Targeting Incretins in Type 2 Diabetes: Role of GLP-1 Receptor Agonists and DPP-4 Inhibitors. Rev Diabet Stud. 2008;5(2):73-94. Until recently, the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been conceptualized in terms of the predominant defects in insulin secretion and insulin action. It is now recognized that abnormalities in other hormones also contribute to the development of hyperglycemia.

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