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Gluconeogenesis

A process by which glucose is synthesized from amino acids, lactate, and/or glycerol. Gluconeogenesis takes place mainly in the liver and provides a source of glucose when there is no intake of exogenous calories and endogenous glycogen stores are reduced (e.g., prolonged fasting, intense exercise).


The following content matched the glossary term: Gluconeogenesis

Glycemic Control: How Low Should You Go?

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Glycemic Control: How Low Should You Go? NDEI Education Council Co-Chair Burton E. Sobel, MD, provides expert commentary on the debate over intensive versus somewhat less intensive glycemic control in the context of a recent study by Zhao et al assessing the impact of hypoglycemia associated with antihyperglycemic medications on vascular risk in type 2 diabetes

Focus on incretin-based therapies: targeting the core defects of type 2 diabetes

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Jellinger PS. Focus on incretin-based therapies: targeting the core defects of type 2 diabetes. Postgrad Med. 2011 Jan;123(1):53-65. Glucose homeostasis is regulated by a complex interaction of hormones, principally including insulin, glucagon, amylin, and the incretins. Glucagon, cortisol, catecholamines, and growth hormone serve as the classic glucose counterregulatory hormones.

The effect of pioglitazone on the liver: role of adiponectin

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Gastaldelli A, Miyazaki Y, Mahankali A, et al. The effect of pioglitazone on the liver: role of adiponectin. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:2275-2281. Diabetic hyperglycemia results from insulin resistance of peripheral tissues and glucose overproduction due to increased gluconeogenesis (GNG). Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) improve peripheral insulin sensitivity, but the effect on the liver is less clear. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of TZDs on GNG.

Effects of Free Fatty Acid Elevation on Postabsorptive Endogenous Glucose Production and Gluconeogenesis in Humans

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Rodent M, Stingl H, Chandramouli V, et al. Effects of Free Fatty Acid Elevation on Postabsorptive Endogenous Glucose Production and Gluconeogenesis in Humans. Diabetes. 2000;49:701-707. Effects of free fatty acids (FFAs) on endogenous glucose production (EGP) and gluconeogenesis (GNG) were examined in healthy subjects during stepwise increased Intralipid/heparin infusion and during glycerol infusion.

Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism in Pregnancy: Normal Compared With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

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Butte NF. Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism in Pregnancy: Normal Compared With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Am J of Clin Nutr. 2000;71:1256S-1261S. This article reviews maternal metabolic strategies for accommodating fetal nutrient requirements in normal pregnancy and in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).

Role of the Human Kidney in Glucose Counterregulation

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Meyer C, Dostou JM, Gerich JE. Role of the Human Kidney in Glucose Counterregulation. Diabetes. 1999;48:943-948. Animal experiments indicate that the kidney may play an important role in glucose counterregulation. Because the human kidney normally takes up and releases glucose, and since patients with end-stage renal disease are prone to hypoglycemia, we examined whether the kidney is also involved in human glucose counterregulation.



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