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Proinsulin

The inactive precursor of insulin. Proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin in secretory granules in the pancreatic ß-cells results in the generation of C-peptide and the active insulin molecule.


The following content matched the glossary term: Proinsulin

Efficacy and tolerability of the DPP-4 inhibitor alogliptin combined with pioglitazone, in metformin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes

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Defronzo RA, Burant CF, Fleck P, Wilson C, Mekki Q, Pratley RE. Efficacy and tolerability of the DPP 4 inhibitor alogliptin combined with pioglitazone, in metformin treated patients with type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Mar 14. Epub ahead of print. Optimal management of type 2 diabetes remains an elusive goal. Combination therapy addressing the core defects of impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance shows promise in maintaining glycemic control.

Efficacy & safety of human glucagon-like peptide-1 analog liraglutide in combination w/ metformin & TZD in patients w/ type2 diabetes (LEAD-4 Met+TZD)

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Zinman B, Gerich J, Buse JB, et al, for the LEAD-4 Study Investigators. Efficacy and safety of the human glucagon-like peptide-1 analog liraglutide in combination with metformin and thiazolidinedione in patients with type 2 diabetes (LEAD-4 Met+TZD). Diabetes Care. 2009;32(7):1224-1230. OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy and safety of liraglutide (a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist) when added to metformin and rosiglitazone in type 2 diabetes.

Impact of sitagliptin on markers of beta-cell function: a meta-analysis

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Riche DM, East HE, Riche KD. Impact of sitagliptin on markers of beta-cell function: a meta-analysis. Am J Med Sci. 2009;337(5):321-328. Progressive beta-cell dysfunction and beta-cell failure are fundamental pathogenic consequences of type 2 diabetes. Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors may exhibit improvement on preclinical measures of both beta-cell function, homeostasis model assessment of beta-cell (HOMA-beta) index, and beta-cell dysfunction, proinsulin/insulin ratio (PI/IR), correlating to beta-cell survival. 

Efficacy and safety of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor alogliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by glyburide monotherapy

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Pratley RE, Kipnes MS, Fleck PR, Wilson C, Mekki Q. Efficacy and safety of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor alogliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by glyburide monotherapy. Diabs Obes Metab. 2009;11(2):167-176. AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of alogliptin, a potent and highly selective dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, in combination with glyburide in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by sulphonylurea monotherapy.

Glycaemic and nonglycaemic effects of pioglitazone in triple oral therapy of patients with type 2 diabetes

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Dorkhan M, Magnusson M, Frid A, et al. Glycaemic and nonglycaemic effects of pioglitazone in triple oral therapy of patients with type 2 diabetes. J Intern Med. 2006;260:125-133. To examine pioglitazone as add-on to metformin and insulin secretagogues in patients with type 2 diabetes and inadequate glycaemic control and its effect on glycaemic control, surrogate measures of insulin sensitivity (adiponectin) and beta-cell function (proinsulin/insulin) and fluid retention.

Role of intact proinsulin in diagnosis and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus

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Pfutzner A, Pfutzner AH, Larbig M, Forst T. Role of intact proinsulin in diagnosis and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2004;6:405-412. Insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. While this can be partly explained by an impairment of direct insulin action on the endothelial cell, an independent contribution can be assigned also to the secretory dysfunction of the beta-cell.

Long-term glycaemic control with pioglitazone in patients with type 2 diabetes

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Campbell IW. Long-term glycaemic control with pioglitazone in patients with type 2 diabetes. Int J Clin Pract. 2004;58:192-200. Patients with type 2 diabetes have dual defects: insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), a new class of oral drugs used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, reduce insulin resistance via an action on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

Diabetes, Insulin Resistance, and the Metabolic Syndrome in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction Without Previously Known Diabetes

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Tenerz A, Norhammar A, Silveira A, et al. Diabetes, Insulin Resistance, and the Metabolic Syndrome in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction Without Previously Known Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2003;26:2770-2776. Individuals with diabetes have an increased morbidity from acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

The Influence of Maternal BMI and Age in Twin Pregnancies on Insulin Resistance in the Offspring

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Loos RJF, Phillips DIW, Fagard R, et al. The Influence of Maternal BMI and Age in Twin Pregnancies on Insulin Resistance in the Offspring. Diabetes Care. 2002;25:2191-2196. There is strong evidence that low birth weight is associated with glucose intolerance and diabetes in adults. We have carried out a twin study to distinguish among maternal influences, which affect both twins; fetoplacental influences, which are unique to each twin; and the genetic factors that may underlie this association.

Reduced Pancreatic b-Cell Compensation to the Insulin Resistance of Aging: Impact on Proinsulin and Insulin Levels

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Rader ME, Schwartz RS, Prigeon RL, Kahn SE. Reduced pancreatic B-cell compensation to the insulin resistance of aging: impact on proinsulin and insulin levels. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85:2275-2280. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with insulin resistance, reduced b-cell function, and an increase in the proinsulin (PI) to immunoreactive insulin (IRI) ratio (PI/IRI); the latter is thought to be an indication of b-cell dysfunction.

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Slide Library Results

Search Results for: Proinsulin Slides Found: 12
Exenatide: Effect on the Beta-Cell
Patients Achieving ADA A1C Goal on 18-Wk Sitagliptin Monotherapy
18-Wk Sitagliptin Monotherapy Improves b-Cell Function
Type 2 Diabetes: Pathogenesis in a Nutshell (cont.)
Functional Defects in beta-Cells in the Development of Diabetes
Tools to Assess beta-Cell Health and Function
24-Week Sitagliptin Monotherapy Improves Glycemic Control in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes
Sitagliptin Improves Glycemic Control in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Not Controlled With Pioglitazone
Sitagliptin Reduces FPG in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Not Controlled With Metformin
Sitagliptin Reduces FPG in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Not Controlled With Pioglitazone
Effect of Sitagliptin + Metformin on FPG in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
Effect of Sitagliptin + Metformin on B-Cell Function at 24 Weeks