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apolipoprotein E (apoE)

A class of apolipoprotein that occurs in the chylomicrons and intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL) that bind to a specific receptor on liver and peripheral cells. It is necessary for the normal catabolysm of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein constituents.
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Effects of simvastatin and carnitine versus simvastatin on lipoprotein(a) and apoprotein(a) in type 2 diabetes mellitus

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Galvano F, Li Volti G, Malaguarnera M, et al. Effects of simvastatin and carnitine versus simvastatin on lipoprotein(a) and apoprotein(a) in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2009;10(12):1875-1882. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of simvastatin and L-carnitine coadministration versus simvastatin monotherapy on lipid profile, lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) and apoprotein(a) (Apo(a)) levels in type II diabetic patients.

Nateglinide and glibenclamide metabolic effects in naive type 2 diabetic patients treated with metformin

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Derosa G, D'Angelo A, Fogari E, et al. Nateglinide and glibenclamide metabolic effects in naive type 2 diabetic patients treated with metformin. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2009;34(1):13-23. Most antidiabetic agents target only one of several underlying causes of diabetes. The complementary actions of the glinides and the biguanides may give optimal glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

The Residual Risk Reduction Initiative: a call to action to reduce residual vascular risk in dyslipidaemic patient

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Fruchart JC, Sacks FM, Hermans MP, et al, for the Residual Risk Reduction Initiative (R3I). The Residual Risk Reduction Initiative: a call to action to reduce residual vascular risk in dyslipidaemic patient. Diab Vasc Dis Res. 2008;5(4):319-35. Despite current standards of care aimed at achieving targets for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, blood pressure and glycaemia, dyslipidaemic patients remain at high residual risk of vascular events.

Sibutramine effect on metabolic control of obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with pioglitazone

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Derosa G, D'Angelo A, Salvadeo SA, et al. Sibutramine effect on metabolic control of obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with pioglitazone. Metabolism. 2008;57(11):1552-1557. Thiazolidinediones are supposed to be the pharmacologic agents that more physiologically fight the insulin resistance, but a possible adverse effect may be a weight increase. The aim of the study was to test the efficacy and tolerability of sibutramine on the metabolic effect of pioglitazone in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes in patients at metabolic risk: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline

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Rosenzweig JL, Ferrannini E, Grundy SM. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes in patients at metabolic risk: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93(10):3671-3689. The objective was to develop clinical practice guidelines for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in patients at metabolic risk.

Pioglitazone Reduces Atherogenic Dense LDL Particles in Nondiabetic Patients With Arterial Hypertension

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Winkler K, Konrad T, Fullert S, Friedrich I, Destani R, et al. Pioglitazone Reduces Atherogenic Dense LDL Particles in Nondiabetic Patients With Arterial Hypertension. Diabetes Care. 2003;26:2588-2594. The oral antidiabetic agent pioglitazone improves insulin sensitivity and glycemic control and appears to lower atherogenic dense LDL in type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance may occur frequently in nondiabetic patients with hypertension.

Effects of Pioglitazone in Nondiabetic Patients with Arterial Hypertension: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

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Füllert S, Schneider F, Haak E, et al. Effects of Pioglitazone in Nondiabetic Patients with Arterial Hypertension: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87:5503-5506. Hypertension is often associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and obesity, which indicate a prediabetic state and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Pioglitazone treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes reduces insulin resistance and improves lipid profiles.

Apolipoprotein E Kinetics: Influence of Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes

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Bach-Ngohou K, Ouguerram K, Nazih H, et al. Apolipoprotein E Kinetics: Influence of Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes. Int J Obesity. 2002;26:1451-1458. The aim of this study was to explore apoE kinetics of obese subjects and to determine what parameters could influence its metabolism.

Study Finds Type 2 Diabetes Patients Have Increased Cardiovascular Burden Even With Good Glycemic Control

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Tan CE, Chew LS, Chio LF, et al. Cardiovascular risk factors and LDL subfraction profile in type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects with good glycaemic control. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2001;51:107-114. To compare cardiovascular risk factors and LDL particle size in well-controlled Type 2 diabetes mellitus and normal subjects.

Conjugated Equine Estrogen Improves Glycemic Control and Blood Lipoproteins in Postmenopausal Women with Type 2 Diabetes

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Friday KE, Dong C, Fontenot RU. Conjugated Equine Estrogen Improves Glycemic Control and Blood Lipoproteins in Postmenopausal Women with Type 2 Diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86:48-52. The objective of this study was to determine the metabolic effects of estrogen replacement therapy in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes.

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