Calcium Channel Blockers

Differences in glucose tolerance between fixed-dose antihypertensive drug combinations in people with metabolic syndrome

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Bakris G, Molitch M, Hewkin A, et al, for the STAR Investigators. Differences in glucose tolerance between fixed-dose antihypertensive drug combinations in people with metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:2592-2597. We sought to test the hypothesis that a fixed-dose combination of trandolapril/verapamil-SR is superior to a fixed-dose combination of losartan/hydrochlorothiazide on glucose tolerance in hypertensive patients with impaired glucose tolerance.

Predictors of Development of Diabetes Mellitus in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease Taking Antihypertensive Medications

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Cooper-Dehoff R, Cohen JD, Bakris GL, et al, for the INVEST Investigators. Predictors of Development of Diabetes Mellitus in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease Taking Antihypertensive Medications (Findings from the INVEST study). Am J Cardiol.. 2006;98:890-894. Knowledge of predictors of diabetes mellitus (DM) development in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) who use antihypertensive therapy could contribute to decreasing this adverse metabolic consequence.

For those intolerant to ACE inhibitors and ARBs, what is the best therapy for reducing the risk of diabetic nephropathy?

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Penmetsa S, Simmons M, Daugird A. For those intolerant to ACE inhibitors and ARBs, what is the best therapy for reducing the risk of diabetic nephropathy? J Fam Pract. 2005;54:711-713. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs) are the first-line agents for reducing the risk of diabetic nephropathy.

In Persons Without Diabetes, Acute Hyperglycemia Impairs Endothelial Function, Perhaps Through the Production of Oxygen-Derived Free Radicals

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Beckman JA, Goldfine AB, Gordon MB, Creager MA. Ascorbate restores endothelium-dependent vasodilation impaired by acute hyperglycemia in humans. Circulation. 2001;103:1618-1623. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation is impaired in patients with insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and restored by vitamin C administration, implicating a causative role for oxidant stress. Hyperglycemia per se attenuates endothelium-dependent vasodilation in healthy subjects.

In Hypertensive Diabetic Patients, ACE Inhibitors Lower Blood Pressure, Reduce the Risk of CVD Events, and Lower the Overall Mortality Rate

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Pahor M, Psaty BM, Alderman MH, Applegate WB, Williamson JD, Furberg CD. Therapeutic benefits of ACE inhibitors and other antihypertensive drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2000;23:888-892. To assess whether ACE inhibitors are superior to alternative agents for the prevention of cardiovascular events in patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes.

Hemodynamic Basis for the Acute Cardiac Effects of Troglitazone in Isolated Perfused Rat Hearts

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Shimoyama M, Ogino K, Tanaka Y, et al. Hemodynamic Basis for the Acute Cardiac Effects of Troglitazone in Isolated Perfused Rat Hearts. Diabetes. 1999;48:609-615. Troglitazone is a thiazolidinedione used for the treatment of NIDDM and potentially for other insulin-resistant disease states. Troglitazone has recently been shown to increase cardiac output and stroke volume in human subjects.