Biguanides

Metformin does not affect cancer risk: a cohort study in the U.K. Clinical Practice Research Datalink analyzed like an intention-to-treat trial

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Tsilidis KK, Capothanassi D, Allen NE, et al. Metformin does not affect cancer risk: a cohort study in the U.K. Clinical Practice Research Datalink analyzed like an intention-to-treat trial. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(9):2522-2532.

Association between intensification of metformin treatment with insulin vs sulfonylureas and CV events and all-cause mortality among patients with diabetes

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Roumie CL, Greevy RA, Grijalva CG, et al. Association between intensification of metformin treatment with insulin vs sulfonylureas and cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality among patients with diabetes. JAMA. 2014;311(22):2288-2296.

Exenatide once weekly versus liraglutide once daily in patients with type 2 diabetes (DURATION-6): a randomised, open-label study.

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Buse JB, Nauck M, Forst T, et al. Exenatide once weekly versus liraglutide once daily in patients with type 2 diabetes (DURATION-6): a randomised, open-label study. Lancet. 2013;381(9861):117-124. DURATION (Diabetes Therapy Utilization: Researching Changes in A1C, Weight, and Other Factors Through Intervention with Exenatide Once-Weekly) is a series of multinational studies comparing once-weekly exenatide with other antihyperglycemic therapies for treatment of type 2 diabetes.

Meta-analysis of effect of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors on cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes mellitus

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Patil HR, Al Badarin FJ, Al Shami HA, et al. Meta-analysis of effect of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors on cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Cardiol. 2012;110:826-833. This meta-analysis from Patil and colleagues provides insights into the effects of DPP-4 inhibitors on cardiovascular (CV) events, and is the first adequately powered study that shows a class-wide effect for DPP-4 inhibitors in decreasing CV event risk over long-term treatment (≥24 weeks).

Efficacy & safety of switching from the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin to the human GLP-1 analog liraglutide after 52 wks in metformin-treated patients

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Pratley RE, Nauck MA, Bailey T, et al. Efficacy and safety of switching from the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin to the human GLP-1 analog liraglutide after 52 weeks in metformin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, open-label trial. Diabetes Care. 2012;35(10):1986-1993. In 2011, Pratley and colleagues reported 52-week data from a trial that explored treatment with the DPP-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, and the GLP-1 receptor agonist, liraglutide, among subjects with type 2 diabetes and A1C 7.5%–10%.

2-year efficacy and safety of linagliptin compared with glimepiride in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin

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Gallwitz B, Rosenstock J, Rauch T, et al. 2-year efficacy and safety of linagliptin compared with glimepiride in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin: a randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority trial. Lancet. 2012;380(9840):475-483. A recent position statement from the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) cites metformin as the optimal first-line drug for diabetes treatment. However, the statement acknowledges that limited data exist regarding treatments to be used beyond metformin.

Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes

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The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Study Group. Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(24):2545-2559. The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) study investigated the effects of intensive glucose-lowering therapy on CV event reduction among patients with type 2 diabetes and either risk factors for, or established, cardiovascular disease.

β-cell function preservation after 3.5 years of intensive diabetes therapy

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Harrison LB, Adams Huet B, Raskin P, Lingvay I. Beta cell function preservation after 3.5 years of intensive diabetes therapy. Diabetes Care. 2012;35(7):1406-1412. To assess beta-cell function preservation after 3.5 years of intensive therapy with insulin plus metformin (INS group) versus triple oral therapy (TOT group) with metformin, glyburide, and pioglitazone.

SEQUEL: Longer-Term Safety, Efficacy of Phentermine + Topiramate for Weight Reduction Among Overweight or Obese Individuals with Cardiometabolic Disease

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Garvey WT, Ryan DH, Look M, et al. Two-year sustained weight loss and metabolic benefits with controlled-release phentermine/topiramate in obese and overweight adults (SEQUEL): a randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 extension study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;95:297-308. The SEQUEL study, an extension of the CONQUER study,1 was a double-blind, placebo-controlled study that evaluated the longer-term efficacy and safety of once-daily, controlled-release phentermine plus topiramate, as an adjunct to lifestyle modification, among overweight and obese subjects with cardiometabolic disease.

CONQUER: Safety, Efficacy of Phentermine + Topiramate for Weight Reduction Among Overweight or Obese Individuals with Weight-Related Comorbidities

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Gadde KM, Allison DB, Ryan DH, et al. Effects of low-dose, controlled-release, phentermine plus topiramate combination on weight and associated comorbidities in overweight and obese adults (CONQUER): a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2011;377:1341-1352. The CONQUER study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study that evaluated the safety and efficacy of once-daily, controlled-release phentermine plus topiramate for weight reduction among those who were overweight or obese and had weight-related comorbidities.

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