GIP

Treatment with the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin improves fasting islet-cell function in subjects with type 2 diabetes

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D'Alessio DA, Denney AM, Hermiller LM, et al. Treatment with the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin improves fasting islet-cell function in subjects with type 2 diabetes.J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94(1):81-88. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are proposed to lower blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by prolonging the activity of the circulating incretins, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1).

Impact of incretin therapy on islet dysfunction: an underlying defect in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes

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McGill JB. Impact of incretin therapy on islet dysfunction: an underlying defect in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Postgrad Med. 2009;121(1):46-58. Glucose homeostasis is governed by a complex interplay of hormonal signaling and modulation. Insulin, glucagon, amylin, the incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and other hormones and enzymes interact to maintain glucose homeostasis and normal cellular metabolism. 

The role of incretins in glucose homeostasis and diabetes treatment

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Kim W, Egan JM. The role of incretins in glucose homeostasis and diabetes treatment. Pharmacol Rev. Pharmacol Rev. 2008;60(4):470-512. Incretins are gut hormones that are secreted from enteroendocrine cells into the blood within minutes after eating. One of their many physiological roles is to regulate the amount of insulin that is secreted after eating. In this manner, as well as others to be described in this review, their final common raison d'être is to aid in disposal of the products of digestion.

The incretins: From the concept to their use in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Part A: Incretins: Concept and physiologic functions

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Girard J. The incretins: From the concept to their use in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Part A: Incretins: Concept and physiologic functions. Diabetes Metab. 2008;34(6):550-559. This paper briefly reviews the concept of incretins and describes the biological effects of the two incretins identified so far: the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP); and the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). GIP is released by the Kcells of the duodenum, while GLP-1 is released by the Lcells of the distal ileum, in response to nutrient absorption.

New combination treatments in the management of diabetes: focus on sitagliptin-metformin

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Green J, Feinglos M. New combination treatments in the management of diabetes: focus on sitagliptin-metformin. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2008;4(4):743-751. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an increasingly prevalent condition worldwide. The complications of this disease are known to significantly increase the morbidity and mortality of those affected, resulting in substantial direct and indirect costs.

Emerging drug candidates of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) inhibitor class for the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

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Gupta R, Walunj SS, Tokala RK, Parsa KV, Singh SK, Pal M. Emerging drug candidates of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) inhibitor class for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Curr Drug Targets. 2009;10(1):71-87. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) is a key regulator of insulin-stimulating hormones, glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), thus it is a promising target for the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Targeting Incretins in Type 2 Diabetes: Role of GLP-1 Receptor Agonists and DPP-4 Inhibitors

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Pratley RE, Gilbert M. Targeting Incretins in Type 2 Diabetes: Role of GLP-1 Receptor Agonists and DPP-4 Inhibitors. Rev Diabet Stud. 2008;5(2):73-94. Until recently, the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been conceptualized in terms of the predominant defects in insulin secretion and insulin action. It is now recognized that abnormalities in other hormones also contribute to the development of hyperglycemia.

Vildagliptin: a review of its use in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus

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Croxtall JD, Keam SJ. Vildagliptin: a review of its use in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Drugs. 2008;68(16):2387-2409. Vildagliptin (Galvus®) is an antihyperglycaemic agent that selectively inhibits the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) enzyme. Such inhibition prevents the degradation of the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP).

Treatment with the DPP-4 inhibitor Vildagliptin improves fasting islet-cell function in subjects with Type 2 diabetes

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D'Alessio, DA, Denney AM, Hermiller LM, et al. Treatment with the DPP-4 inhibitor Vildagliptin improves fasting islet-cell function in subjects with Type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;epub ahead of print. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are proposed to lower blood glucose in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) by prolonging the activity of the circulating incretins, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1).

Effects of the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor vildagliptin on incretin hormones, islet function, and postprandial glycemia

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Rosenstock J, Foley JE, Rendell M, Landin-Olsson M, Holst JJ, Deacon CF, Rochotte E, Baron MA. Effects of the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor vildagliptin on incretin hormones, islet function, and postprandial glycemia in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(1):30-5. This study was conducted to determine the effects of vildagliptin on incretin hormone levels, islet function, and postprandial glucose control in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).

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