2000

Type 2 Diabetes: Incremental Medical Care Costs During the 8 Years Preceding Diagnosis

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Nichols GA, Glauber HS, Brown JB. Type 2 Diabetes: Incremental Medical Care Costs During the 8 Years Preceding Diagnosis. Diabetes Care. 2000;23:1654-1659. From electronic records of a large group-model health maintenance organization (HMO), we ascertained the medical care costs preceding diagnosis for all members with type 2 diabetes who were newly diagnosed between 1988 and 1995.

Type 2 Diabetes Is a Prominent Risk Factor for Carotid Atherosclerosis

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Bonora E, Kiechl S, Oberhollenzer F, et al. Impaired glucose tolerance, type II diabetes mellitus, and carotid atherosclerosis: prospective results from the Bruneck Study. Diabetologia. 2000;43:156-164. Cardiovascular disease is a well-known severe complication of impaired glucose tolerance and Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. The independent contribution of glucose intolerance to cardiovascular disease and the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are still, however, not clear.

Type 2 Diabetes and Maternal Family History: An Impact Beyond Slow Glucose Removal Rate and Fasting Hyperglycemia in Low-risk Individuals?

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Men Bjørnholt JV, Erikssen G, Liestøl K, et al. Type 2 Diabetes and Maternal Family History: An Impact Beyond Slow Glucose Removal Rate and Fasting Hyperglycemia in Low-risk Individuals? Results From 22.5 Years of Follow-up of Healthy Nondiabetic Men. Diabetes Care. 2000;23:1255-1259. Although an excess transmission of type 2 diabetes from mothers has been documented, whether this is an independent trait or whether the effect can be detected early through risk factors for type 2 diabetes remains to be elucidated.

Troglitazones Antioxidant Activity Is Associated w Improvement in Endothelial Function & Postischemic Arterial Blood Flow & w Reduction in Lipid Perox

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Garg R, et al. Troglitazone reduces reactive oxygen species generation by leukocytes and lipid peroxidation and improves flow-mediated vasodilation in obese subjects. Hypertension. 2000;36:430-435. Because troglitazone has been shown to have antioxidant properties, we investigated whether troglitazone administration to obese subjects causes a reduction in (1) reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) and mononuclear cells (MNCs) and (2) lipid peroxidation as reflected in the plasma concentrations of 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9-HODE) and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HODE).

Troglitazone Reduces Plasma TNF-a Levels As it Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Diabetic Patients

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Katsuki A, Sumida Y, Murata K, et al. Troglitazone reduces plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism. 2000;2:189-191. We evaluated the effect of troglitazone (given orally 400 mg/day) on glucose intolerance and on the plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in 12 obese patients with type 2 diabetes for 12 weeks. Troglitazone significantly decreased fasting plasma glucose, serum C-peptide, serum insulin and HbA1c levels.

Troglitazone Antioxidant Activity Assoc'd w Improvement in Endothelial Function, Postischemic Arterial Blood Flow, Lipid Peroxidation in Atherosclerosis

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Garg R, et al. Troglitazone reduces reactive oxygen species generation by leukocytes and lipid peroxidation and improves flow-mediated vasodilation in obese subjects. Hypertension. 2000;36:430-435. Because troglitazone has been shown to have antioxidant properties, we investigated whether troglitazone administration to obese subjects causes a reduction in (1) reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) and mononuclear cells (MNCs) and (2) lipid peroxidation as reflected in the plasma concentrations of 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9-HODE) and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HODE).

Triglycerides, Apo C3 and Lp B:C3 and Cardiovascular Risk in Type 2 Diabetes

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Gervaise N, Garrigue MA, Lasfargues G, Lecomte P. Triglycerides, apo C3 and Lp B:C3 and cardiovascular risk in type II diabetes. Diabetologia. 2000;43:703-708. Cardiovascular complications and particularly coronary heart disease are the main causes of morbidity and mortality in Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Some studies have shown that hypertriglyceridaemia in diabetes is an independent cardiovascular risk factor.

To Screen or Not to Screen

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Vijan S, Hofer TP, Hayward RA. Cost-utility analysis of screening intervals for diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. JAMA. 2000;283:889-896. Annual eye screening for patients with diabetes mellitus is frequently proposed as a measure of quality of care. However, the benefit of annual vs less frequent screening intervals has not been well evaluated, especially for low-risk patients.

Thiazolidinedione Compounds Ameliorate Glomerular Dysfunction Independent of Their Insulin-Sensitizing Action in Diabetic Rats

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Isshiki K, Haneda M, Koya D, Maeda S, Sugimoto T, Kikkawa R. Thiazolidinedione compounds ameliorate glomerular dysfunction independent of their insulin-sensitizing action in diabetic rats. Diabetes. 2000;49:1022-1032. Thiazolidinedione (TZD) compounds are widely used as oral hypoglycemic agents. Herein, we provide evidence showing that troglitazone, one of the TZD compounds, is able to prevent glomerular dysfunction in diabetic rats through a novel mechanism independent of its insulin-sensitizing action.

The Thiazolidinedione Troglitazone Protects the Kidneys of Rats that Serve as a Model of Human Type 2 Diabetes

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McCarthy KJ, Routh RE, Shaw W, et al. Troglitazone halts diabetic glomerulosclerosis by blockade of mesangial expansion. Kidney International. 2000;58:2341-2350. Renal complications of long-term, poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus include glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. The onset and progression of these complications are influenced by underlying pathophysiologies such as hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia.

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