2006

Mechanisms linking obesity to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes

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Kahn SE, Hull RL, Utzschneider KM. Mechanisms linking obesity to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Nature. 2006;444:840-846. Obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In obese individuals, adipose tissue releases increased amounts of non-esterified fatty acids, glycerol, hormones, pro-inflammatory cytokines and other factors that are involved in the development of insulin resistance.

Trends in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus from the 1970s to the 1990s: the Framingham Heart Study

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Fox CS, Pencina MJ, Meigs JB, et al. Trends in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus from the 1970s to the 1990s: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 2006;113:2914-2918. Recent studies indicate that the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is increasing in the United States; less is known about trends in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Treating postprandial hyperglycemia does not appear to delay progression of early type 2 diabetes: the Early Diabetes Intervention Program

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Kirkman MS, Shankar RR, Shankar S, et al. Treating postprandial hyperglycemia does not appear to delay progression of early type 2 diabetes: the Early Diabetes Intervention Program. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:2095-2101. We investigated whether ameliorating postprandial hyperglycemia with acarbose would prevent or delay progression of diabetes, defined as progression to frank fasting hyperglycemia, in subjects with early diabetes (fasting plasma glucose [FPG] <140 mg/dl and 2-h plasma glucose > or =200 mg/dl).

Tolerability and pharmacokinetics of metformin and the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin when co-administered in patients with type 2 diabetes

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Herman GA, Bergman A, Yi B, Kipnes M, for the Sitagliptin Study 012 Group. Tolerability and pharmacokinetics of metformin and the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin when co-administered in patients with type 2 diabetes. Curr Med Res Opin. 2006;22:1939-1947. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the tolerability of co-administered sitagliptin and metformin and effects of sitagliptin on metformin pharmacokinetics as well as metformin on sitagliptin pharmacokinetics under steady-state conditions.

Thiazolidinediones and the risk of edema: A meta-analysis

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Berlie HD, Kalus JS, Jaber LA. Thiazolidinediones and the risk of edema: A meta-analysis. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2006 Oct 17; [Epub ahead of print]. The use of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been associated with an increased risk of peripheral edema. A meta-analysis was performed to assess the overall risk for developing edema secondary to TZD.

Therapies for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus based on incretin action

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Gallwitz B. Therapies for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus based on incretin action. Minerva Endocrinol. 2006;31:133-147. Orally ingested glucose leads to a much higher insulin response than intravenous glucose leading to identical postprandial plasma glucose excursions. This phenomenon, termed 'incretin effect' comprises up to 60% of the postprandial insulin secretion and is diminished in type 2 diabetes.

The Natural Course of {beta}-Cell Function in Nondiabetic and Diabetic Individuals: The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study

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Festa A, Williams K, D'Agostino R, Jr., Wagenknecht LE, Haffner SM. The Natural Course of Beta-Cell Function in Nondiabetic and Diabetic Individuals: The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. Diabetes. 2006;55:1114-1120. Data from the UKPDS (U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study) indicate a continuous decline in beta-cell function in patients with type 2 diabetes.

The metabolic syndrome: recognition and management

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Hall WD, Watkins LO, Wright JT et al. The metabolic syndrome: recognition and management. Dis Manag. 2006;9:16-33. The National Cholesterol Education Program defines the metabolic syndrome as three or more of five abnormalities: waist circumference of >40 in (102 cm) for men or >35 in (88 cm) for women, triglyceride level of >/=150 mg/dL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol of <40 mg/dL in men or <50 mg/dL in women, blood pressure of >/=130/>/=85 mm Hg, and fasting glucose of >/=110 mg/dL. It is related to insulin resistance, but the two terms are not synonymous.

The hyperglycemia: intensive insulin infusion in infarction (HI-5) study: a randomized controlled trial of insulin infusion therapy

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Cheung NW, Wong VW, McLean M. The hyperglycemia: intensive insulin infusion in infarction (HI-5) study: a randomized controlled trial of insulin infusion therapy for myocardial infarction. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:765-770. There is conflicting evidence regarding the benefit of intravenous insulin therapy on mortality following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The goal of the current study was to determine whether improved glycemic control, achieved through an insulin/dextrose infusion with a variable rate of insulin, reduces mortality among hyperglycemic patients with AMI.

The effect of simvastatin on triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in patients with type 2 diabetic dyslipidemia: a SILHOUETTE Trial Sub-study

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Miller M, Dobs A, Yuan Z, Battisti WP, Palmisano J. The effect of simvastatin on triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in patients with type 2 diabetic dyslipidemia: a SILHOUETTE Trial Sub-study. Curr Med Res Opin. 2006;22:343-350. To determine if simvastatin effectively decreases the elevated levels of triglyceride (TG), TG-rich lipoproteins, and small, dense LDL particles, which are characteristic of diabetic dyslipidemia.

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