2008

Usefulness of preoperative oral glucose tolerance testing for perioperative risk stratification in patients scheduled for elective vascular surgery

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Dunkelgrun M, Schreiner F, Schockman DB, Hoeks SE, Feringa HH, Goei D, Schouten O, Welten GM, Vidakovic R, Noordzij PG, Boersma E, Poldermans D.. Usefulness of preoperative oral glucose tolerance testing for perioperative risk stratification in patients scheduled for elective vascular surgery. Am J Cardiol. 2008;101(4):526-9. Patients scheduled for major vascular surgery are screened for cardiac risk factors using standardized risk indexes, including diabetes mellitus (DM). Screening in patients without a history of DM includes fasting glucose measurement.

Treatment with the DPP-4 inhibitor Vildagliptin improves fasting islet-cell function in subjects with Type 2 diabetes

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D'Alessio, DA, Denney AM, Hermiller LM, et al. Treatment with the DPP-4 inhibitor Vildagliptin improves fasting islet-cell function in subjects with Type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;epub ahead of print. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are proposed to lower blood glucose in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) by prolonging the activity of the circulating incretins, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1).

The role of incretins in glucose homeostasis and diabetes treatment

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Kim W, Egan JM. The role of incretins in glucose homeostasis and diabetes treatment. Pharmacol Rev. Pharmacol Rev. 2008;60(4):470-512. Incretins are gut hormones that are secreted from enteroendocrine cells into the blood within minutes after eating. One of their many physiological roles is to regulate the amount of insulin that is secreted after eating. In this manner, as well as others to be described in this review, their final common raison d'être is to aid in disposal of the products of digestion.

The Residual Risk Reduction Initiative: a call to action to reduce residual vascular risk in dyslipidaemic patient

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Fruchart JC, Sacks FM, Hermans MP, et al, for the Residual Risk Reduction Initiative (R3I). The Residual Risk Reduction Initiative: a call to action to reduce residual vascular risk in dyslipidaemic patient. Diab Vasc Dis Res. 2008;5(4):319-35. Despite current standards of care aimed at achieving targets for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, blood pressure and glycaemia, dyslipidaemic patients remain at high residual risk of vascular events.

The prevention of progression of arterial disease and diabetes (POPADAD) trial: factorial randomised placebo controlled trial of aspirin and antioxidants

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Belch J, MacCuish, Campbell I, et al, for the Prevention of Progression of Arterial Disease and Diabetes Study Group. The prevention of progression of arterial disease and diabetes (POPADAD) trial. BMJ. 2008;337:a1840. To determine whether aspirin and antioxidant therapy, combined or alone, are more effective than placebo in reducing the development of cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes mellitus and asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease.

The incretins: From the concept to their use in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Part A: Incretins: Concept and physiologic functions

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Girard J. The incretins: From the concept to their use in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Part A: Incretins: Concept and physiologic functions. Diabetes Metab. 2008;34(6):550-559. This paper briefly reviews the concept of incretins and describes the biological effects of the two incretins identified so far: the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP); and the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). GIP is released by the Kcells of the duodenum, while GLP-1 is released by the Lcells of the distal ileum, in response to nutrient absorption.

The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin improves beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity in subjects with impaired fasting glucose

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Utzschneider KM, Tong J, Montgomery B, Udayasankar J, Gerchman F, Marcovina SM, Watson CE, Ligueros-Saylan MA, Foley JE, Holst JJ, Deacon CF, Kahn SE. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin improves beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity in subjects with impaired fasting glucose. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(1):108-13. To evaluate the effect of treatment with the dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitor vildagliptin on insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG).

Targeting Incretins in Type 2 Diabetes: Role of GLP-1 Receptor Agonists and DPP-4 Inhibitors

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Pratley RE, Gilbert M. Targeting Incretins in Type 2 Diabetes: Role of GLP-1 Receptor Agonists and DPP-4 Inhibitors. Rev Diabet Stud. 2008;5(2):73-94. Until recently, the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been conceptualized in terms of the predominant defects in insulin secretion and insulin action. It is now recognized that abnormalities in other hormones also contribute to the development of hyperglycemia.

Standards of medical care in diabetes--2008

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American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes--2008. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(Suppl 1):S12-54.

Sitagliptin: a novel agent for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus

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Pham DQ, Nogid A, Plakogiannis R. Sitagliptin: a novel agent for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2008;65(6):521-31. The pharmacologic, pharmacokinetic, safety, clinical efficacy, and role of sitagliptin in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus are reviewed.

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