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A hormone secreted by the adrenal gland during stress and when blood glucose levels are low. It has many actions, one of which is to counteracts the action of insulin by promoting glycogen breakdown in the liver and the release of fatty acids from adipose tissue.

The following content matched the glossary term: Epinephrine

Hypoglycemia-Associated Autonomic Failure in Advanced Type 2 Diabetes


Segel SA, Paramore DS, Cryer PE. Hypoglycemia-Associated Autonomic Failure in Advanced Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes. 2002;51:724-733. We tested the hypotheses that the glucagon response to hypoglycemia is reduced in patients who are approaching the insulin-deficient end of the spectrum of type 2 diabetes and that recent antecedent hypoglycemia shifts the glycemic thresholds for autonomic (including adrenomedullary epinephrine) and symptomatic responses to hypoglycemia to lower plasma glucose concentrations in type 2 diabetes. 

Caffeine Can Decrease Insulin Sensitivity in Humans


Keijzers GB, De Galan BE, Tack CJ, Smits P. Caffeine Can Decrease Insulin Sensitivity in Humans. Diabetes Care. 2002;25:364-369. Caffeine is a central stimulant that increases the release of catecholamines. As a component of popular beverages, caffeine is widely used around the world. Its pharmacological effects are predominantly due to adenosine receptor antagonism and include release of catecholamines.

Chronic administration of pharmacologic doses of vitamin E improves the cardiac autonomic nervous system in patients with type 2 diabetes


Manzella D, Barbieri M, Ragno E, Paolisso G. Chronic Administration of Pharmacologic Doses of Vitamin E Improves the Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73:1052-1057. Type 2 diabetes is associated with elevated oxidative stress and declines in antioxidant defense. The disease is also characterized by an imbalance in the ratio of cardiac sympathetic to parasympathetic tone.

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